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What Causes Dry Eye?

Dry Eye Syndrome can be caused by various factors. Here are some common causes:

  1. Inadequate Tear Production: Insufficient production of tears by the lacrimal glands can result in dry eyes. This can be due to aging, hormonal changes (such as menopause in women), certain medical conditions (like Sjögren's syndrome), or side effects of medications (such as antihistamines, decongestants, and antidepressants).
  2. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: The meibomian glands in the eyelids produce an oily substance called meibum, which helps to prevent evaporation of tears. When these glands don't function properly, as in Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD), the tear film becomes unstable and evaporates more quickly, leading to dry eyes.
  3. Environmental Factors: Environmental conditions can contribute to dry eyes. Factors such as low humidity, wind, smoke, and air conditioning or heating systems can increase tear evaporation and cause dryness.
  4. Prolonged Screen Time: Staring at digital screens for extended periods can cause decreased blinking, leading to dry eyes. Reduced blinking reduces the distribution of tears and can result in eye dryness and discomfort.
  5. Contact Lens Use: Wearing contact lenses for long durations or not following proper hygiene practices can lead to dry eyes. Contacts can disrupt the tear film and cause irritation, especially if they don't fit properly or if the lens material is not suitable for your eyes.
  6. Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus), diabetes, thyroid disorders, and allergies, can contribute to Dry Eye Syndrome.
  7. Medications: Various medications can cause or worsen dry eyes as a side effect. These may include antihistamines, decongestants, blood pressure medications, hormonal medications, and certain antidepressants.
  8. Eyelid Problems: Conditions that affect the eyelids, such as ectropion (outwardly turned eyelid) or entropion (inwardly turned eyelid), can disrupt the normal distribution of tears and lead to dry eyes.

It's important to identify the underlying cause of your dry eyes to determine the most effective treatment approach. Consulting with an eye care professional can help diagnose the cause and provide appropriate management strategies to alleviate the symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome.

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